This Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project aimed to evaluate the business case for a further significant investment in research to support the development of floriculture-related enterprises, contributing to the development goal of improving the livelihoods of local communities, especially women smallholders in Papua New Guinea (PNG). There were four objectives to assess the feasibility of future investment strategies, namely: (1) To strengthen floricultural industry enterprises including production, cool and supply chains, marketing skills and market knowledge. (2) To assess the opportunities for producing and marketing tropical, temperate flowers and decorative foliage in traditional and new production areas. (3) To improve the business acumen, skills and marketing of floricultural products by PNG people, particularly women in rural and peri-urban areas. (4) To use floriculture as an alternate profitable and sustainable livelihood for women who don’t have access to large amounts of land or women who seek to diversify their income. The project was completed by Kim James (team leader and floriculture expertise), Dr Katja Mikhailovich (women and development specialist) and Michael Clarke (agricultural economist).